Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were initially created for therapeutic purposes, and synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. Due its great anabolic effects, these drugs are being used on a large scale, for the improvement of sports performance. In this present study, we aim to show the history of it’ use, present their mechanisms of action, more particularly its use correlate with improved body composition, muscle mass, aerobic capacity and verify their possible side effects, analyzing their use therapeutic and indiscriminate, through direct scientific research with the sports. Sources were reviewed scientific the following search engines: PUBMED, LILACS and SCIELO. The results showed that in presence of a suitable AAS and diet can contribute to increases in body weight, particularly lean body mass and muscle strength gains achieved by high intensity exercise, these effects can be further potentiated, the use of supraphysiological doses, but in the aspect of aerobic power, there are not scientific evidence to support their improvement. Regarding side effects, the use of AAS, is related to several complications in the liver, cardiovascular system, reproductive system and psychological characteristics, always assigned by the non-therapeutic and abuse of AAS. Thus we conclude that the use of AAS, are directly linked to gains muscle mass, strength, as well several side effects, always assigned to abusive and indiscriminate doses, it is noteworthy that the scientific literature, still has a certain lack of studies, mainly randomized, controlled, with supraphysiological doses in human, so many effects are still unknown.
For example, anabolic steroids such as Testosterone have a tendency to promote water retention through their ability to be aromatized into Estrogen via the aromatase enzyme. While such an effect might not be a concern for a strength athlete or a powerlifter (such an effect might even be beneficial or desired in such sports), this is not a desired effect for athletes involved in sports that involve speed and swiftness, such as sprinting. Instead, a sprinter, for example, would more likely opt for an anabolic steroid such as Stanozolol ( Winstrol ) or Oxandrolone ( Anavar ), which are two anabolic steroids unable to convert into Estrogen and therefore the issue of water retention, and therefore the issue of added weight that would slow the athlete down is avoided. Many athletes may also elect to ‘stack’ anabolic steroids in a given cycle (stacking refers to the practice of combining more than one anabolic steroid in a cycle). In the case of cycle stacks, an individual might be able to increase the synergy and synergistic effects between the anabolic steroids to create a highly anabolic environment or to create a stack that might assist the user in favoring certain particular athletic or physique goals. These are some of the major reasons as to why the development of different types of steroids has been done.
Some side effects of prohormone supplementation can include acne breakouts, temporary hair loss, and increased sensitivity of the breast tissue. To help minimize these undesirable side effects, many users add a process known as post cycle therapy. Completing post cycle therapy entails taking an additional supplement that will offset spikes in testosterone levels and clear any toxins that have accumulated in the liver. Since prohormones are processed and broken down in the liver, it can add more stress on this organ than normal. These supplements can also lead to increases in blood pressure, which is another reason why post cycle therapy is a good idea.